JICDRO is a UGC approved journal (Journal no. 63927)
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2021
Volume 13 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 79-158

Online since Monday, January 17, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Bargaining in dentistry p. 79
Sonali Deshmukh
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_78_21  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Chlorhexidine in operative dentistry - A review Highly accessed article p. 80
Tanvi Sanjay Satpute, Sanjyot A Mulay
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_2_21  
This review aims to explore existing literature and provide information about techniques that have been employed to incorporate chlorhexidine (CHX) in dental materials, its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its effects on the pulp and dental restorations, in addition to its possible side effects. For both dentists and patients, one of the most important aspects of dental restorations is its longevity. Thus, the objective should be elimination of bacteria and bacterial remnants that can be responsible for recurrent caries, postoperative sensitivity, and ultimately failure of the restoration. Searches were carried out on various online databases including PubMed. Keywords were chosen to assess the properties of various dental materials containing CHX. Methods of introducing CHX in restorative materials were also searched. Studies were selected based on relevance, with a preference given to recent research. A range of antibacterial agents have been incorporated into experimental as well as commercial dental restorative materials to provide antibacterial activity. CHX has demonstrated to be effective and safe against bacterial plaque and biofilms. In addition to its plaque-inhibiting effect, CHX displays other properties beneficial for use in Operative Dentistry.
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Oral cancer and genomics p. 86
Preeti Nair, Priyanka Deepak Deshmukh, Akhil M Trivedi, Joshua Shaji Thomas
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_23_21  
Oral cancer is a leading cause of death, especially in developing countries. Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. It accounts for 1.9% death annually due to delay in diagnosis and treatment strategies. Oral carcinogenesis is a multistep process. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular control of these various pathways will facilitate more accurate diagnosis and assessment of prognosis and can pave the way for more novel approaches to treatment and prevention. This review highlights the major genes involved in oral carcinogenesis and emphasizes on the implementation of genomics, which can be the new paradigm for drug development and targeted therapeutics.
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Comprehensive evaluation of adverse effects of host modulatory agents: A critical review p. 93
Ashutosh Nirola, Priyanka Batra, Balreen Kaur Bali
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_3_21  
Recent advances in study of inflammatory pathways are bringing up new pathways of understanding regarding the bone loss and tissue destruction related to periodontitis. This knowledge, along with the development of novel drugs like host modulatory agents that can inhibit bone loss/destruction, provides us with opportunities to manage not only soft tissue inflammation but also the destructive bone loss occurring during periodontitis. The use of such agents as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy, not only minimizes the current periodontal disease severity and improves treatment prognosis, but also reduces future susceptibility to periodontal disease. But there are certain adverse effects secondary to these agents and thus this literature review sheds light on some of these adverse reactions which are known to be caused by these novel drugs
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Saliva in coronavirus disease-2019: A reliable diagnostic tool and imperative transmitter: A review p. 101
Jayati Pandey, Darshan R Prasad Hiremutt, Amit Mhapuskar
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_81_20  
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by zoonotic virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, in 41 patients with a perplexing pneumonia. Ever since, it has wreaked havoc in the entire world and was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. According to the WHO, 2019-nCoV principally spreads through respiratory droplets and saliva, thus making dental care and other aerosol-generating practices precarious in nature. Saliva is a bio mixture secreted from major and minor salivary glands which plays a vital role in prompt diagnosis and close contact transmission of the disease. In this article, we discuss the role of saliva in the diagnosis and as a potent transmitter of COVID-19 infection.
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS Top

Evaluation of the biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles, ascertaining their safety in the field of endodontic therapy p. 109
Gnyani Prasad, Kiranmayi Govula, Lavanya Anumula, Pavan Kumar
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_22_21  
The success of endodontic therapy relies on the complete elimination of bacteria from the root canals. Primary root canal infections consist of polymicrobial groups, which can efficiently eradicate through root canal treatment. However, conventional root canal treatment cannot remove persistent bacterial species from the root canals. Although significant numbers of studies that focus on developing antimicrobial agents to overcome this problem exist, most of these attempts failed to achieve desired outcomes due to the rapid degradation and fast release of antibacterial agents, causing low efficiency and safety concerns. Antimicrobials such as sodium hypochlorite and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid are commonly used in endodontic treatment. They carry the disadvantage of antibiotic resistance. Thus nanoparticles (NPs) have been introduced in dentistry as an alternative to such materials. The dominant microorganism, or sometimes the only species present in the root canal of teeth with resistant peri-radicular lesions, is Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). This bacterium is capable of tolerating starvation, high pH, and salt concentration. Its ability to penetrate dentinal tubules and create resistant species to antibiotics has made it very difficult to eradicate root canals. One of the essential characteristics of this bacterium is biofilm formation. NPs can reach the untouched portion of root canals such as cul de sacs, isthmi, fins and can implement the ideal action of irrigant such as antibacterial action. Higher-end evidence-based support is needed to ascertain the application of NPs in the field of endodontics. Hence, our systematic review encompasses, encloses, and enumerates the use of silver NPs in routine endodontic procedures.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH Top

Salivary profile of matrix metalloproteinase-8, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-1, myeloperoxidase, and nitrous oxide in smokers versus nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis p. 118
Deepti Gattani, Jigyasa Sahu, Nupur Kar, Ritika Gattani
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_4_21  
Background: Smoking is the second strongest modifiable risk factor for periodontal disease. Tissue destruction might result from matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) imbalance in the diseased tissues. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase are stored in and secreted from the primary granules of activated leukocytes which can migrate to the site of inflammation and release MMPs. Periodontal diseases are associated with systemic diseases and enhanced circulatory levels of MMPs and their regulators may form a link between the local and systemic conditions, but no definitive correlation has been established between them yet. Methods: Seventy-five males were divided into three groups: Group I – 25 healthy controls, Group II – 25 nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis (CP), and Group III – 25 smokers with CP. Saliva was collected from all the patients, and levels of MMP-8, TIMP-1, MPO, and NO were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results: TIMP-1 values were found to be significantly higher in nonsmokers with periodontitis than smokers with periodontitis (P < 0.01). Levels of MPO, MMP-8, and NO were significantly less in smokers with periodontitis than nonsmokers with periodontitis (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Our findings of elevated levels of MMP-8, MPO, and NO and reduced levels of TIMP-1 in smokers with periodontitis when compared to nonsmokers with periodontitis may be regarded as an indicator of the increased risk for local and systemic inflammation and of cigarette smoke oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
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An In vitro comparative evaluation of effect of novel irrigant Qmix and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the push-out bond strength of biodentine and endosequence bioceramic root repair material p. 124
Vandana J Gade, Aparajita Gangrade, Jaykumar R Gade, Neelam Rahul
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_82_20  
Background: Perforations can occur during any endodontic procedure which may affect prognosis if not repaired immediately. During perforation repair, various irrigating solutions were used which may affect the bond strength of repair materials. Methods: In this study, sixty dentin slices of 2 mm thickness were prepared with lumen 1.3 mm. Samples were divided into two groups. Biodentine and EndoSequence Root Repair Material (RRM) were placed in the respective samples and incubated for 24 h. Subdivision of groups into three was done: control, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and QMix. Immersion was done for 30 min, followed by incubation for 48 h. The samples were then tested for compressive strength through a push-out test. The mean, standard deviation, median, and range of bond strength of EndoSequence Bioceramic RRM and Biodentine were obtained. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the statistical significance of difference in the mean push-out strengths of each material across decalcifying agents. Paired analysis of push-out strength between decalcifying agents for each material was performed using Tukey's post hoc test. All the analyses were performed using R-3.0.0 programming language, and the statistical confidence was tested at 95%. Results: Results showed that EndoSequence RRM had superior bond strength than Biodentine. 17% EDTA and QMix showed negative influence on the bond strength. However, QMix samples had more bond strength than 17% EDTA. Conclusion: QMix showed less negative influence than EDTA on Biodentine and EndoSequence RRM.
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A gender-based study on the hierarchical correlation of various anatomical landmarks with the midline of face and commissure p. 129
Shivkumar P Mantri, Sneha Shivkumar Mantri, Akashdeep Singh Bal, Suryakant Deogade, Abhilasha Bhasin, Monika Khatri
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_24_21  
Background: The position of the dental midline is significant to enhance dentofacial esthetics. This study aimed to assess the closest anatomical landmark to the facial and mouth's midline applicable to dentate male and female Indian youths. Materials and Methods: A full-face photo of 100 males and 100 females with a broad smile showing visible anterior dentition was taken. An esthetic facial frame was developed digitally on the photographs taking the reference of facial anatomical landmarks. Relative facial midline values for nasion, the nose tip, the philtrum tip, and dental midline were obtained. The relative commissural midline value was obtained by dividing the variables by the constant. Statistical analysis: Data were statistically analyzed using the t-test. Results and Conclusions: Anatomic landmarks correlated with facial midline and with the inter-commissural midline (P < 0.01). The nasion is nearest to the facial midline, followed by dental midline, commissure, tip of the philtrum, and nose tip in that order. The anatomic landmarks nearest to the inter-commissural midline are the tip of the philtrum, followed by the dental midline, nasion, and nose tip. The nose tip was the farthest landmark from the face's midline and the inter-commissural midline. In gender-wise comparison, landmarks did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). All the measurements were almost equal in males and females.
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Speech assessment and recording by orthodontist in patients with cleft lip and palate p. 135
Rashmi Sunil Jawalekar, Samadnya Sunil Jawalekar
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_7_21  
Speech is a complex motor skill that involves the co-ordination of diverse muscle groups. Gross motor movements of the muscles responsible for inspiration and expiration must be coupled with intricate the muscles of larynx; soft palate tongue and lips to produce sustained intelligible speech. A defect in structure, position, or motor control of any element involved with the mechanical production of speech alters the quality of sound produced. Complete palatopharyngeal closure is required for the production of certain sounds such as plosives, while phonemes such as vowels and nasal consonant require opening of the palatopharyngeal port in varying degrees. Hypernasal speech is the common symptom in patients with valopharangeal incompetence (VPI). The treatment option includes surgical correction, prosthetic rehabilitation, and speech therapy. The optimal result requires a multidisciplinary approach for restoration of the defects.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Esthetic rehabilitation and management of sunken cheeks by using detachable cheek plumpers in a conventional complete denture with different attachments p. 139
Jaykumar R Gade, Aditi S Kumbhalwar, Shardul V Johari, Megha J Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_1_21  
Long-term loss of teeth due to aging can cause loss of muscle tonicity of the face. This results in unesthetic appearance, functional impairment, and disturbed psychosocial life. Sunken cheek is one among the main findings of long-term edentulous patients. It can be managed with a conventional denture prosthesis. However, in some cases, additional support could also be required. Cheek plumper prosthesis manages the slumped appearance of cheeks by providing extra support. It restores the facial esthetics; thereby enhancing the self-esteem of the patient. This case report describes the management of patients with sunken cheeks and their esthetic rehabilitation by using maxillary cheek plumpers attached with stainless steel coated neodymium magnet and push-button attachments to the conventional complete denture.
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Rehabilitation of facial defect on a unique case of disfigurement p. 144
Chithambaradhas Sivakala Arunkumar, J Brintha Jei, Murugesan Krishnan, Balasubramaniam Muthukumar
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_17_21  
Rehabilitation of facial disfigurement after a surgery or trauma is difficult to address as it involves individuality of the patient. Face being the visual pro forma, rehabilitating it is always a challenging task. This is predominantly due to the presence of soft tissue, lack of anatomic undercut, and increased muscle activity. The use of osseointegrated implants provides the most reliable retention, however, placing it on an intact facial defect further complicates rehabilitation. This case report is about rehabilitation of lost facial feature after tumor resection surgery.
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Managing an extrusive luxation secondary to tongue thrust in an immature young permanent tooth. A case report and discussion p. 148
Aman Deep, Seema Thakur, Deepak Chauhan, Dipti Chawla
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_15_21  
Traumatic dental injuries for the most part are unanticipated events that require prompt diagnosis and management. Often the scarcity of time and anxious environment created due to injuries confound its management and prognosis. Hence, a planned and organized approach to perform care, inevitably expedite procedures in a timely fashion. However, in different situations generally predispose nonestablishment of contemporary methods for management. Here, we present a case report, in which the management of extrusive injuries was affected by other surrounding factors that presumably decreased the prognosis of the tooth. A less novel method was instituted to manage the case of extrusive luxation affecting an upper anterior tooth in a young adolescent child. Since the extrusion of tooth was confounded by parafunctional habit and a palatal impacted supernumerary tooth, it remains a mystery that the secondary extrusion following traumatic extrusive luxation of the tooth could have been due to erupting forces generated by supernumerary tooth. Hence, preoperative evaluation and its management play a pivotal role in establishing the prognosis of traumatized tooth.
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Peripheral ossifying fibroma: A clinical entity in the mandibular incisor region- A case report p. 153
Ira Gupta, Swati Mishra, Rohit Gupta, Saranik Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_11_21  
Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) is one of the inflammatory reactive exophytic nodular growth, commonly occurring on the gingiva. It is seen more often in females, in the interdental papilla and anterior part of the maxilla. It represents unique clinical characteristics and diverse histopathological features. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice but with a reported recurrence rate of 7%–45%. In the present case report, a 15-year-old female patient reported with the chief complaint of painless swelling in the mandibular anterior region. An excisional biopsy was obtained and sent for histopathological diagnosis. On histopathological examination, it was confirmed as POF. The purpose of this article is to present a case of POF and review the current literature on this condition, so that, such condition can be treated through proper diagnosis and treatment planning.
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