JICDRO is a UGC approved journal (Journal no. 63927)
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-June 2022
Volume 14 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-78

Online since Monday, July 4, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Three-dimensional technology in dentistry and its fourth dimension p. 1
Sonali Vijay Deshmukh
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_28_22  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Dental caries in children and COVID-19 - An interleukin association: A review of a novel concept p. 3
Sourabh Ramesh Joshi, Gowri Swaminatham Pendyala, Sachin Sarode, Gargi Sarode, Sridhar Shetty, Swati Pustake
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_45_21  
COVID-19 is a pandemic throughout the world, leading to the hunger of knowledge as well as evidences regarding the corona virus which causes this disease. Interleukins are the chemokines which belong to the family of cytokines which are chemotactic in nature and cause the recruitment of cells of inflammation. In the recent COVID 19 pandemic the adverse outcomes in children, though reported less, has been related to the establishment of a cytokine storm, the components of which are common with the cytokine expression profile of Dental caries and early childhood caries in children. IL-6 levels are raised in the serum of the patients infected with COVID-19. Dental caries in children has been attributed to having its pathophysiology related in a cytokine response. Salivary IL-6 levels have been found to be elevated in children with multiple carious lesions. Hypotheses The present letter aims to propose that the multiple carious lesions can be a biomarker for the patients affected with COVID 19 due to raised IL-6 levels. Evaluation of hypotheses: The authors screened the data on COVID 19 and its association with dental caries in children. This paper is an hypotheses to highlight the importance of raised levels of IL-6 as a biomarker in the saliva of children with carious lesions and those affected with COVID-19. This communication proposes the connection between COVID-19 and dental caries through their cytokine connection to form a translational basis for recommending maintenance of oral hygiene in the COVID era. Thus every dentist must suspect every patient affected with multiple carious lesions to be a carrier of COVID-19.
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FEAr no more! Finite element analysis in orthodontics p. 6
Shilpa Chawla, Shailesh Deshmukh
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_79_21  
Finite element analysis (FEA) incorporates the principles of erudite engineering to scrutinize stresses that cause deformation in structural units. This technique uses computer-assisted design software and FEA analysis software for modeling structural units established on their geometry, loading, boundaries, and converts the data into algebraic equations to find solutions for different applications. In dentistry, this computer-based simulation method is deemed revolutionary in forecasting and quantifying stress in investigational biological tissues, dental prostheses, and restorations. This review is designed to explicate the significance of FEA in diverse facets of dentistry with special consideration to orthodontics.
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Management of hemorrhage in maxillofacial injuries using foley's catheter – A review of literature p. 13
Merlyn Elizabeth Monsy, Sumir Gandhi, Inderjot Singh, Tarun Koshy Isaac, Angel Subramanium, Rik Mukherjee
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_13_22  
As globalization and digitalization takes place in today's time, wars also advance both in technology along with the arms being used. In today's date, wars are not confined to swords and cannons as it was in traditional warfare, rather the weapons used today are more inclined to injure and wound the population than to kill, thus making the treatment a challenge for the surgeons and clinicians present on the battle ground with the limited resources available.This review was conducted to understand the use of Foley's catheter, which is readily available at all trauma centers for the immediate management of bleeding in penetrating injuries of head and neck region. Methodology: An in-depth search was conducted on Google Scholar and PubMed data bases in an organized order to summarize the final results. Since Foley's catheter is a readily available tool and requires minimal skills for placement, it can be used to as temporary balloon tamponade to control bleeding and hemorrhage on the battle field as an emergency protocol. However, there is a need to develop definite international guidelines and further literature should be worked upon the same for the better understanding of this technique.
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Use of dynamic navigation system in endodontics: A literature review p. 17
Sanchit Vilas Mujumdar, Anamika Chetan Borkar, Sayali Anil Maral, Nikhil Babaji Nighot, Sanket Dilip Aras
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_57_21  
Over the years, traditional endodontic approaches performed have caused significant loss of healthy tooth structure. Clinical approach became relatively predictable following the introduction of cone-beam computed tomography, Digital Imaging and Communications files, and dental operating microscopes. Despite these advances, mishaps such as excessive dentin loss and/or perforations may still occur during freehand preparations affecting the tooth's prognosis. Following the developments in surface scanning and three-dimensional printing, static guidance systems were introduced. However, they too had multiple drawbacks. Dynamic navigation systems (DNSs) were introduced following to overcome them. DNS is based on computer-aided navigation technology analogous to the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation. New minimally invasive preparations have been put forward claiming to be the future of endodontics which can be achieved with the help of DNS. The review thus aims at evaluating the possible use of DNS in planning and executing these minimally invasive preparations without unnecessary loss of healthy tooth structure.
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Removable prosthodontic considerations for patients having neurologic and neuromuscular disorders p. 24
Aryen Kaushik, Anurag Bhatnagar, Taranjeet Kaur
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_57_20  
This review provides an updated synopsis and documentation of various modified approaches for planning as well as fabricating removable prosthesis for patients suffering from commonly reported neurological and neuromuscular disorders. An increase in life expectancy and comparative decline in the number of newborns has led to a sharp growth in elderly population, a large number of which suffer from age-related disorders. Among these, neurological and neuromuscular disorders are the most common age-related diseases, which greatly affect the functioning as well as adaptability of any intraoral removable prosthesis. To address the above needs, a rich profusion of clinical reports have been published, which include modified conventional techniques of prosthesis fabrication, as per the symptoms and requirement of the patient. We included the Medline and Google database search using the mentioned keywords to congregate the literature.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH BASIC AND CLINICAL Top

Graphical evaluation of the geometric tooth form: A gender-based AutoCAD analysis of maxillary central incisor p. 31
Sneha Mantri, Kailash Asawa, Nagesh Bhat, Surekha Godbole, Shivkumar Mantri, Akashdeep Singh Bal
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_18_21  
Background: No universally accepted parameter exists for selecting/restoring the form of maxillary central incisors (MCIs). Aim: The purpose of this cross-sectional, observational clinical study was to digitally determine the prevalent form of MCIs among males and females of the Central Indian population with AutoCAD software. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical study comprising 200 dental and engineering students (female: 100; male: 100) aged between 18 and 35 years. The pictures of the right (MCI) of each participant were clicked. The images were calibrated in the vertical position to standardize according to the long axis of the tooth. The AutoCAD computer program was used to evaluate the geometric form of the tooth graphically. The results revealed that the tooth form was classified as oval, triangular, or quadrangular. The intergroup comparison using one-way analysis of variance was made, followed by the intragroup comparison using Tukey's test for quantitative data. For comparison between males and females based on tooth form, the data were assessed using Student's t-test as quantitative analysis, and for qualitative assessment, Chi-square test was used. The significance level was set at 0.05. Remeasuring 40 samples from each group tested intraexaminer consistency by applying Bland–Altman and scatter regression analysis. Results: Males had 57% oval, 29% tapered, and 14% quadrangular, while females had 60% oval, 23% tapered, and 14% quadrangular tooth form. Conclusions: The oval tooth form was the most common, both in males and females, followed by the tapered and the quadrangular form. No gender variation was seen in tooth forms.
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The effect of different irrigants on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules with and without activation, using confocal scanning microscope p. 37
Helayl A Alshaibani, Shibu Thomas Mathew
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_20_21  
Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of three root canal irrigants with the influence of activation technique on the depth of sealer penetration into dentinal tubules using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Materials and Methods: Sixty recently extracted human mandibular premolars with single straight canals (n = 60) were prepared with ProTaper Next NiTi rotary files up to X3. The samples were divided into three groups according to the final irrigation solution (n = 20), 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, 17% ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Each group was further subdivided into two groups according to the ultrasonic activation protocol and then obturated with a single gutta-percha size X3 and labeled sealer mixed with 0.01% fluorescent rhodamine B after the final irrigation protocol. Transverse sections were obtained at 2, 5, and 8 mm from the apex and observed under CLSM. It recorded the maximum penetration depth of both irrigant and sealer. Data were analyzed using a three-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P = 0.05). Results: 17% EDTA exhibited significantly higher penetration depth with ultrasonic activation than the other groups and also determined (P < 0.011) statistically significant differences at root canal third (coronal, middle, apical; P < 0.011). Conclusions: The dentinal tubule penetration was significantly affected by selecting a root canal irrigant, an ultrasonic activation protocol, and root canal third. 17% EDTA with ultrasonic activation seemed beneficial in dentinal tubule penetration. Hence, the depth of sealer penetration might influence the outcome or success rate of endodontic therapy.
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Comparison of nickel and chromium ion release using four different commercially available mouthwashes on orthodontic brackets and wires: An In vitro study p. 44
Purva Verma, Ashwin Mathew George
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_21_21  
Aim: Ions such as nickel and chromium which form the main component of most alloys used in orthodontics are released from orthodontic wires and appliances and can cause allergic reactions and cytotoxicity. The release of ions increases with the intake of fluids. Our study aimed to assess the release of nickel and chromium ions from nickel titanium orthodontic wires following the use of four common mouthwashes. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic appliances were immersed in Amflor Oral Rinse (Fluoridated), Listerine Cool Mint Mouthwash (Alcohol Based), Colgate PlaxMouthwash (nonalcoholic), and Herbal Mouthwash (natural extracts) for 24 h. The samples were collected at four-time intervals and optical emission spectroscopy served to quantify the amount of released ions. Results: The results showed an increase in the release of nickel and chromium ions in all mouthwashes. The release of nickel ions was the highest in Amflor and the lowest in herbal mouthwash. Chromium ion release was highest with Amflor mouthwash. Conclusion: Fluoridated mouth rinses causes increased release of ions while herbal mouthwashes causing least release. Care must be taken while prescribing mouthwashes to sensitized patients.
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Mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic revascularization of nonvital anterior tooth p. 48
Tanu Priya Sonkar, Naiya Pathak, Swarup Shetty, Amey J Rathi, Azhar Mohammed, Prashant Viragi
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_31_21  
Context: Management of nonvital immature teeth requires careful management due to higher risk of root fracture. Aims: The aim of this study was done to evaluate the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) endodontic revascularization of permanent nonvital anterior tooth. Materials and Method: Forty patients in the age group of 18–30 years were included in the study. MTA revascularization procedure was done on immature necrotic upper anterior tooth with the presence or absence of periapical condition. The success was assessed with root lengthening, healing, apical closure, and dentinal wall thickness. Age group 18–23 years comprised 12 males and 10 females and 24–30 years had 10 males and 8 females. In 20% of cases, good healing and 80% had excellent healing were seen. Statistical Analysis Used: The obtained data were statistically evaluated using Mann–Whitney U-test for the comparison. Significance of the study was labeled at 0.05, highly significant at 0.01. Results: Mann–Whitney U-test showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). Twenty percent of teeth had fair, 30% had well, and 50% had excellent root lengthening. Apical closure was fair in 40%, good in 20%, and excellent in 40% teeth. Dentinal wall thickening was fair in 35%, good in 40%, and excellent in 25%. Conclusions: A successful revascularization procedure in nonvital permanent anterior teeth was seen both clinically and radiographically in terms of apical closure, greater healing, improved dentinal wall thickening, and root lengthening.
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A novel method of decalcification of bone by heat-accelerated method with tissue floatation bath using nitric acid and formic Acid: A comparative study p. 52
Amruta Hiraman Galphade, Aarti Mahajan, Nilima Prakash, Pradip Lakshaman
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_80_21  
Context: Decalcification of bone is a challenging aspect since penetration of decalcifying agents through dense alveolar bone is a slow process. Striking the right balance between speed and quality of staining is essential for accurate and timely diagnosis of bone pathologies. Aims: This study aimed to compare the rate of decalcification of bone by employing conventional method and tissue floatation bath (TFB) using 10% nitric acid and 10% formic acid. It also compared the cellular and staining characteristics of decalcified specimens of bone by the abovementioned methods. Materials and Method: Forty bone slices of hemimandibulectomy specimens were decalcified by employing conventional method and TFB at elevated temperature using 10% nitric acid and 10% formic acid. Following evaluation by chemical endpoint test, they were then subjected to tissue processing and staining with hematoxylin and eosin stain and assessed for various parameters. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using statistical software SPSS version 18.0. One-way ANOVA was applied to evaluate the significant differences among the mean values in different groups. Results: The heat-accelerated TFB method significantly reduced the time of decalcification of bone without compromising the cellular and nuclear details. The cellular and staining characteristics of TFB method were better than those decalcified by conventional method. Conclusions: TFB method using 10% formic acid at elevated temperature provided the best cellular and nuclear details with reduced decalcification time as compared to conventional methods.
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Evaluation of level of awareness among coaches regarding the prevalence of sports-related orofacial trauma in children and their first aid and prevention in Delhi-NCR region p. 60
Naresh Sharma, Binita Srivastava, Jyoti Batra, Sangeeta Sharma, Puneet Mohan Khari
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_16_21  
Aims and Objectives: The objective is to evaluate the awareness of sports-related orofacial injuries among coaches in Delhi-NCR region and to determine the awareness in providing the first aid and prevention of sports-related orofacial injuries. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five coaches of different sports academies/schools were selected from Delhi-NCR region. The study was explained to all coaches, and written informed consent was taken. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions was given to them and they were asked to fill that questionnaire on the spot. Awareness of coaches regarding the role of dentist in sports academies or during sports events was evaluated through the questionnaire. All questionnaires filled by the coaches were evaluated with the help of professional statistician. Conclusion: From the study it can be concluded that, the knowledge of coaches regarding prevention and first-aid of orofacial trauma is not satisfactory. This is the major concern regarding their knowledge in dealing with dental injuries.
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Effect of personal habits on bone mineral density among adults using orthopantomogram indices as a screening tool for osteoporosis p. 68
Jayant N Palaskar, Vaman V Khadilkar, Anuradha V Khadilkar, Kadambari Ajay Ambildhok, Sachin S Mumbare
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_101_21  
Background: Effect of tobacco, areca nut, and alcohol consumption (vices) on orthopantomogram (OPG) indices. Aims: To assess the relationship between vices on OPG indices in Indian adult males aged 20–60 years. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted on 172 males with a mean age of 34.2 ± 1 years. OPG was used for measuring mandibular indices and correlated with the history of the presence of vices. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were presented as mean ± SE or frequency (%). Point biserial correlation was used to assess the correlation between OPG indices and vices. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the differences in age-adjusted OPG indices between males who had vices against males who had no vice. Results: Overall, 21.5% of the males had at least one vice. A significant decrease in antegonial index (AI) values (P < 0.05) was found between tobacco and alcohol consumption. There was a significant decrease in the values of the gonial index (GI) and AI, having at least one vice (P < 0.05). A higher percentage of participants who had at least one adverse habit had low OPG indices score than participants who had no such habits. Conclusions: Orthopantomogram indices specifically AI were negatively affected in males who had vices.
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CLINICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUES/CASE REPORT WITH DISCUSSION Top

Lymphocyte-rich classical hodgkin's lymphoma involving submandibular salivary gland: A case report p. 74
Isha Prasad Kale, Amit A Mhapuskar, Venkatesh V Kulkarni, Darshan R Prasad Hiremutt
DOI:10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_26_21  
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a malignant disease of the lymphoid tissue originating from the germinal center and postgerminal center B-cells comprising 10% of all lymphomas and 0.6% among all cancers. Here, we report a case of a 22-year-old male with a chief complaint of painless swelling in the right submandibular region for the past 6 months with no contributory medical history. Correlating the history and clinical examination, a clinical diagnosis of benign sialadenoma was made. Benign sialadenoma was confirmed on radiographic investigations such as ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, excisional biopsy and immunohistochemistry performed revealed a case of classical HL (lymphocyte-rich type). The positron-emission tomography–computed tomography revealed metastasis to the inguinal and cervical lymph nodes.
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