JICDRO is a UGC approved journal (Journal no. 63927)

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ORIGINAL RESEARCH - BASIC AND CLINICAL
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 60-67

Evaluation of level of awareness among coaches regarding the prevalence of sports-related orofacial trauma in children and their first aid and prevention in Delhi-NCR region


1 Departments of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Santosh Deemed to be University, Delhi-NCR, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Santosh Deemed to be University, Delhi-NCR, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St. Stephen's Hospital, Delhi, India
4 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Manav Rachna Dental College, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Date of Submission06-Apr-2021
Date of Acceptance12-Aug-2021
Date of Web Publication4-Jul-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Naresh Sharma
House No: 1204, Shashikant Enclave, Sector-37, Noida - 201 301, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jicdro.jicdro_16_21

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   Abstract 


Aims and Objectives: The objective is to evaluate the awareness of sports-related orofacial injuries among coaches in Delhi-NCR region and to determine the awareness in providing the first aid and prevention of sports-related orofacial injuries. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five coaches of different sports academies/schools were selected from Delhi-NCR region. The study was explained to all coaches, and written informed consent was taken. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions was given to them and they were asked to fill that questionnaire on the spot. Awareness of coaches regarding the role of dentist in sports academies or during sports events was evaluated through the questionnaire. All questionnaires filled by the coaches were evaluated with the help of professional statistician. Conclusion: From the study it can be concluded that, the knowledge of coaches regarding prevention and first-aid of orofacial trauma is not satisfactory. This is the major concern regarding their knowledge in dealing with dental injuries.

Keywords: Dental trauma, first aid, mouth guard, orofacial injuries, prevention


How to cite this article:
Sharma N, Srivastava B, Batra J, Sharma S, Khari PM. Evaluation of level of awareness among coaches regarding the prevalence of sports-related orofacial trauma in children and their first aid and prevention in Delhi-NCR region. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2022;14:60-7

How to cite this URL:
Sharma N, Srivastava B, Batra J, Sharma S, Khari PM. Evaluation of level of awareness among coaches regarding the prevalence of sports-related orofacial trauma in children and their first aid and prevention in Delhi-NCR region. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 7];14:60-7. Available from: https://www.jicdro.org/text.asp?2022/14/1/60/349748




   Introduction Top


Dental trauma is considered to be a distressing event, which often causes psychological as well as physical problems affecting the quality of life of the individual and his family. Injuries related to teeth are the most common type of orofacial injury occurred during participation in sports. The current public popularity of contact sports and the willingness to take high risks in sports have led to an increase in sports injuries.[1]

Sports coaches and their awareness on first aid related to orofacial trauma actually play the vital role in prognosis. Since there is a strong correlation in between sports and the etiology of dental trauma, it would be quite essential for coaches and teachers of physical education to be capable of managing such injuries when they occur.[2]

Dental trauma especially in children and young adults has been reported from several countries with high rates between 11% and 60%. A large number of these injuries can cause irreparable dental loss, and if not treated timely, root resorption or ankylosis could occur. Epidemiological studies have reported sports activities as one of the main etiological factors of dental trauma.[3]

In New Zealand, despite a high incidence of avulsive injuries, sports coaches generally had an inadequate knowledge for managing such conditions.[4]

Most of the orofacial injuries occurring during sports activities can be avoided or can be minimized by wearing protective devices such as mouth guard and by timely first aid care in cases of orofacial trauma because managing the avulsed tooth/tooth fragment is directly associated with a more favorable prognosis.

In view of the above limited Indian-based epidemiological information, a study on prevalence and awareness of orofacial injuries in sports coaches was conducted. This study will emphasize on the level of awareness among coaches regarding the prevalence of sports-related orofacial trauma. This further will create an awareness of timely first aid management and prevention. Thus a neglected field like Sports dentistry (SD) will get due recognition worldwide and in India.


   Materials and Methods Top


A total of 125 coaches of different sports academies/schools were selected from Delhi-NCR region. The study was explained to all coaches, and written informed consent was taken. Only coaches with degree in sports science/physical education were included in the study. Coaches not possessing a degree in sports science/physical education were excluded from the study. Written informed consent was obtained from them after explaining the study to them with their area of specialized sports be mentioned. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions was given to them and they were asked to fill that questionnaire on the spot. The questionnaire sought the information about what sports they teach and their awareness about the prevalence of orofacial trauma in participants during sports activities. The questionnaire consists of questions that were intended to check the awareness of coaches regarding first aid management of orofacial injuries. Questions regarding the benefits and types of mouthguard and face shields used during sports were also included in the questionnaire to check their awareness. Awareness of coaches regarding the role of dentist in sports academies or during sports events was evaluated through the questionnaire. Questionnaires would need to be filled completely. Incompletely filled questionnaire was excluded from the data compilation, recording, and statistical evaluation. All questionnaires filled by the coaches were evaluated with the help of a professional statistician [Annexure 1].


   Results Top


In this study, from the total sample size, 88% were male and 12% were female coaches [Pie Chart 1]. Out of the total sample size, maximum number of coaches, i.e., 78 out of 125, are involved in strenuous contact sports such as football, hockey, and swimming [Graph 1]. In the case of the most common type of tooth fracture that is being encountered, 94% of coaches believed that the front teeth of the upper jaw fractured more commonly [Graph 2].



In the case of knowing whether it is possible to put the fractured tooth back into its position, 59% of coaches responded with Yes and 41% coaches responded with No [Graph 3]. Hence, the majority know that it is possible to place the fractured tooth back into its original position. In the case of within how much time after fracture should a tooth be repositioned, majority of the coaches, that is, 57%, believed that the tooth should be repositioned immediately [Graph 4].



While assessing the knowledge regarding how to carry the avulsed tooth, majority of the coaches, that is, 62%, do not know how to carry the avulsed tooth to the dentist. Only 7% of coaches opted for the milk as the carrying medium [Graph 5]. In this survey study, 66% of coaches responded that they do not know whether the lost tooth can be replaced or not, whereas 34% responded that it is possible for the lost tooth to be replaced [Graph 6].



Ninety-seven percent of coaches suggested that it is important that a dental surgeon should be a part of the team setup and only 2% of coaches do not think that it is important that a dental surgeon should be a part of their team setup [Graph 7].



Hence, from the above study, it is clear that the coaches do not have the sufficient knowledge regarding the orofacial injuries associated with the sports.


   Discussion Top


In many countries, one of the most common forms of recreation practiced is sports, which includes games, sports at professional level, and competitive level.[1] It has been widely reported that participation in sports carries a considerable risk of sustaining injury, moreover competitive contact sports were found to be more dangerous.[2]

In some team sports and contact sports such as boxing, judo, karate, jiu-jitsu, wrestling, sumo, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, mountain biking, motocross, hockey, and skating, the risk of injury due to the contact or impact can be considered high.[3] The dental trauma is the most common in sports activities, and it is often associated with serious consequences such as aesthetic, functional, economic, and psychological problems. It will depend on severity, and it can even exclude the athlete from an important competition.

SD involves the prevention, maintenance, and treatment of oral and facial injuries, as well as the collection and dissemination of information on dental trauma, in addition to stimulating research.

Sports coaches and their awareness on first aid related to orofacial trauma play the vital role in prognosis. As sports have been implicated in the etiology of dental trauma, it is desirable for coaches and teachers of physical education to be capable of managing such injuries when they occur.[5]

The present study focused on the level of awareness among coaches regarding the prevalence of sports-related orofacial trauma in children and their first aid and prevention in Delhi-NCR Region since they are the main influence on athletes.

Avulsed tooth needs to be replanted as early as possible, and various recommended storage mediums should be used to preserve the vitality of periodontal ligament cells of the avulsed tooth.[6] In the present study, majority of the coaches, that is, 62%, do not know how to carry the avulsed tooth to the dentist. Only 7% of coaches opted for the milk as the carrying medium. A review study conducted by Emerich et al. proposed “Save– a– tooth” boxes containing an isotopic transport medium, which can maintain the viability of avulsed tooth for up to 72 h.[7]

In the present survey study, 66% of coaches responded that they do not know whether the lost tooth can be replaced or not, whereas 34% responded that it is possible for the lost tooth to be replaced. In a study conducted by Vidovic et al., half of the interviewed coaches, i.e. 68 of 131 (52.7%) coaches, were familiar with the possibility of replantation of avulsed teeth.[8]

This difference in the percentage of knowledge regarding replantation of avulsed tooth shows the insufficient knowledge of coaches in the Delhi-NCR region.

Extraoral time is very much important in determining the success of tooth replantation. The prognosis of an avulsed tooth may jeopardize if there is a delay in providing emergency dental treatment.

Emergency management and first aid during various sports are of utmost importance to deal with any kind of unwanted traumatic dental injuries. Knowledge of first aid is also beneficial among sports coaches to improve the prognosis of any injury. Various sports are listed in those activities where first aid and emergency could be required any time.

In the present study, out of 125 coaches, 71 did not have any knowledge regarding first aid to an injured child. A study conducted by Kalaskar et al. showed that 91% of teachers were unaware of first aid provided after dental trauma.[9] This shows that there is lack of knowledge regarding first aid among coaches and physical education teachers.

Coaches not only bear the responsibility to educate the sportspersons but also motivating them to use various protective measures such as mouth guards and shields. Various studies have shown that only few coaches or sports teachers imply these precautions on a regular basis.[10] Similar results have been shown by the present study, in which 74 coaches out of 125 are not using any kind of protective measures such as mouth guards and face shields. Various reasons for such nonrecommendations include financial problems, lack of motivation, or lack of knowledge regarding protective appliances and their availability.

Collaborations between coaches and dental professionals are recommended to increase the knowledge and awareness. With the help of dental professionals, the risk of dental trauma/orofacial injuries can be prevented to a large extent. Furthermore, in the present study, almost 97% of coaches responded that it is important that a dental surgeon should be a part of the team setup. Most of the sportspersons and children start participating at an early age; therefore, it is important to provide knowledge regarding orofacial injuries or to include SD in the education curriculum.


   Conclusion Top


From the above study, it can be concluded that majority of the coaches do not know how to carry the avulsed tooth to the dentist. This is the major concern regarding their knowledge in dealing with dental injuries.

Most of the participant coaches were aware about the importance of protective measures such as mouth guards and face shields but still do not encourage the sportspersons to use them on a regular basis. The knowledge score on sports injury was not high. However, a majority of the coaches showed strong beliefs in implementing injury prevention interventions as an effective way to prevent and reduce sports injuries.

The results of this study should help lay the groundwork for enhancing the knowledge and awareness of coaches and in the prevention of sports-related orofacial injuries.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


   Annexure 1 Top


DEPARTMENT OF PEDODONTICS AND PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY

Santosh Dental College, Ghaziabad

SURVEY FORM

NAME:

AGE:

GENDER:

EDUCATION:

1. What type of sports do you teach?

  1. Strenuous contact sports

    (Lawn tennis, baseball, Floor hockey, weight lifting, swimming, football, squash, gymnastics, cycling, basketball, martial arts, volleyball)
  2. Moderately strenuous contact sports (badminton, sailing, Rowing, cricket, table tennis)
  3. Non-strenuous contact sports (golf, archery, shooting)


2. Age group of children that you teach?

  1. 5- 10 yrs
  2. 11- 15 yrs
  3. 16-20 yrs


3. Frequency of children being injured in a month-

  1. 0-10% children
  2. 10-30% children
  3. >30% children


4. Most common parts of the face injured

  1. Lips
  2. Cheeks
  3. Jaws
  4. tooth/teeth
  5. Nose


5. Most Common type of tooth fracture that you encounter

  1. Front teeth of upper jaw
  2. Front teeth of lower jaw
  3. Back teeth- upper jaw
  4. Back teeth- lower jaw


6. Do you know it is possible to put fractured/dislocated tooth back into its position?

  1. Yes
  2. No


7. Within how much time after fracture should a tooth be repositioned?

  1. Immediately
  2. Up to 20 mins
  3. Up to 60 mins
  4. Up to 24 hrs


8. Have you received any formal training for providing first aid to an injured child?

  1. Yes
  2. No


9. Have you been trained to manage a displaced or fractured tooth?

  1. Yes
  2. No


10. Do you feel retaining the displaced natural tooth is important?

  1. Yes
  2. No


11. Does you students wear protective mouth guards and face shields?

  1. Yes
  2. No


12. If yes (question 11), please mention the sports for which they wear guards and face shields –

13. What kind of mouth guards do the children in your academy wear?

  1. Readymade
  2. Customised mouth guards made by dentists


14. In case of a dislodged tooth how should an injured child carry the tooth to the dentist?

  1. In his mouth
  2. In cotton/cloth
  3. Water
  4. HBSS solution
  5. Napkin
  6. Milk
  7. Tap water
  8. Do not know


15. Is dental health as important as general health?

  1. Yes
  2. No


16. If the tooth falls on the ground and gets dirty, what would you do?

  1. wash it with tap water
  2. Brush it's root and crown
  3. Wash it with saline solution
  4. Wash it with milk
  5. Do not wash it
  6. Do not know


17. Do you think that the tooth that fractured or fell out completely should or shouldn't be looked for the place?

  1. Don't know
  2. It should
  3. It shouldn't


18. What's your opinion, can a tooth lost by trauma be replaced or not?

  1. Don't know
  2. It can
  3. It can't


19. Is there any sort of education in your academy?

  1. Yes
  2. No


20. Do you think it's important or not for your team to have a Dental Surgeon in the team set up?

  1. Yes
  2. No


21. Has any Dental Surgeon informed you ever about the use of mouth guard?

  1. Yes
  2. No


22. Have you ever been to a Dentist after sports injury?

  1. Yes
  2. No


23. Do you think coaches need to be more aware of sports injury?

  1. Yes
  2. No


24. Who encouraged you to use mouth guard?

  1. Head coach
  2. Colleague
  3. Parents
  4. Dentists




 
   References Top

1.
Galic T, Kuncic D, Poklepovic Pericic T, Galic I, Mihanovic F, Bozic J, et al. Knowledge and attitudes about sports-related dental injuries and mouthguard use in young athletes in four different contact sports – Water polo, karate, taekwondo and handball. Dent Traumatol 2018;34:175-81.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Biazevic MG, Crosato EM, Detoni Â, Klotz R, de Souza ÉR, de Paula Queluz D. Orofacial injuries in sports and use of mouthguards among university students. Braz J Oral Sci 2010;9:380-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Tsuchiya S, Tsuchiya M, Momma H, Sekiguchi T, Kuroki K, Kanazawa K, et al. Factors associated with sports-related dental injuries among young athletes: A cross-sectional study in Miyagi prefecture. BMC Oral Health 2017;17:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Goswami M, Kumar P, Bhushan U. Evaluation of knowledge, awareness, and occurrence of dental injuries in participant children during sports in New Delhi: A pilot study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10:373-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Priya M, Sharmin D, Amarlal D, Thomas E, Pooja Y. Knowledge and attitudes of coaches regarding sports related oro-facial injuries in Chennai, India. Dentistry 2016;6:2161-1122.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Yeşil Duymuş Z, Gungor H. Use of mouthguard rates among university athletes during sport activities in Erzurum, Turkey. Dent Traumatol 2009;25:318-22.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Panzarini SR, Pedrini D, Brandini DA, Poi WR, Santos MF, Correa JP, et al. Physical education undergraduates and dental trauma knowledge. Dent Traumatol 2005;21:324-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Flanders RA, Bhat M. The incidence of orofacial injuries in sports: A pilot study in Illinois. J Am Dent Assoc 1995;126:491-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Frontera RR, Zanin L, Ambrosano GM, Flório FM. Orofacial trauma in Brazilian basketball players and level of information concerning trauma and mouthguards. Dent Traumatol 2011;27:208-16.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sharmin D, Amarlal D, Thomas E, Pooja Y. Knowledge and attitudes of coaches regarding sports related oro-facial injuries in Chennai, India. J Dent Oral Disord Ther 2016;6:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 10
    




 

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    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
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   Annexure 1
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